• He spoke quietly.
  • He speaks English perfectly.

頻度や程度など、主体を修飾する時は、動詞の直前に置く。 be 動詞や助動詞の場合は直後に置く。

  • 頻度: always / usually / often / sometimes / seldom / hardly / never
    • I always get to work at 10:00.
    • He’s usually at the office by 18:00.
    • I’ve never been to Japan.
  • 程度: completely / absolutely / almost / rather
    • I absolutely agree with you.
    • I almost won the match.
  • all / both
    • Alice and Bob are both programmers.
    • We all got the answer.
    • We have all done things we wish we hadn’t.

形容詞や副詞を修飾する時は、直前に置く。 enough のように例外もある。

  • The book is extremely good.
  • It’s completely wrong.
  • She speaks Japanese quite well.
  • The room is large enough to accommodate a double bed.

Fortunately, … のように、文全体を修飾する時は先頭に置く。

  • Fortunately, Scala has a very nice collection framework.
  • These days, we can get a lot of information on the Internet.

形容詞 + ly

多くの形容詞は …ly をつけると副詞にはなるが、そうでないものもあるので、そのルールで覚えてはならない。 hard / hardly のように形容詞と副詞で意味が異なる場合もある。

  • bad / badly
  • careful / carefully
  • incredible / incredibly
  • quiet / quietly


good に対応する副詞は well になる。

  • I speak English well.
  • He is a well known writer.


  • He is a great striker.
  • That sounds great.
  • We get along great.
  • If you knew it, It would be greatly appriciated.



  • I don’t have enough money for a vacation.
  • He’s experienced enough to do the job.
  • Fair enough.
  • Suprisingly enough, the picture was drawn by an 8-year old girl.



  • She’s a very fast runner.
  • She can run very fast.

「しっかりとした(ぐらつかない)」意味なら fastly という副詞もある。

  • Fast Rope / Fast Gloves / Fast Grip
  • They are fast friends.
  • Hold fast to the rope!
  • We tied the rope (fast|fastly).

late / lately

lately は「最近は …」の意味になる。

  • Sorry, I’m late.
  • I got up late.
  • I haven’t seen Alice lately.

hard / hardly

hardly は「めったに … ない」の意味になる。

  • He’s a hard worker. 彼は働き者だ
  • He works hard. 彼は一生懸命働く
  • He was hardly working. 彼はほとんど仕事していなかった

hardly any(body|thing|where) で、ごくわずかの量を表す。

  • How much money do you have? Hardly any.
  • There’s hardly anything here.
  • Hardly anybody passed the exam.
  • There’s hardly anywhere to park a car.

hardly ever は、ほぼ never を表す。

  • These days, I hardly ever see my parents.

so / such

so は形容詞と副詞を修飾する。強調したり like this のようなニュアンスを持たせる。同じ用法で such は名詞を修飾する。

  • It’s so nice.
  • Don’t speak so loudly.
  • You’re such a great help.
  • I can’t wait for such a long time.

still / yet

still は「まだ …」の副詞になる。疑問/否定文の時は yet を用い、文末に置く。

  • I’m still working.
    • I haven’t finished working yet.
  • I still have the toys.
    • I haven’t thrown them away yet.
  • Has she left the office yet?
    • She is still at the office.
    • She has just left the office.
    • She has already left the office.

anymore / no longer

not … anymore (any longer) は「今ではもう … していない」の意味になる。 anymore は文末に置く。

  • I’m not interested in PHP anymore.
  • I never see him anymore.
  • He doesn’t play the guitar anymore.

肯定文での no longer も使える。この場合は、副詞と同じく動詞の直前に置く。

  • I’m no longer interested in PHP.
  • I no longer see him.
  • He no longer play the guitar.


even は「… さえも」という、想定していない驚きを加える。動詞を修飾するときは、通常の副詞と同じルールで置く。

  • He even cuts his own hair.
  • My husband often cooks dinner. He’s even good at sewing.
  • She can’t even boil water.
  • I’ve not even been on a train.


  • It’s easy. Even I could do it.
  • Not even experts know how to do it.
    • No one, not even experts, know how to do it.
  • Do you know how to use iPhone? No, I don’t know even how to start.
  • She was texting on her phone, even while we were talking to each other.
  • he managed to control himself, even in that situation.

比較級を修飾すると「さらに …」という意味になる。比較する文節を提示した後に , but … などで続けて使う。

  • I’m good at playing guitar, but she is even better. 彼女はさらに上手だ


very / rather / quite / fairly


  1. very / really / etreamly / pretty とても
  2. rather 思った以上に
  3. quite 思ったより(褒め言葉にはならない)
  4. fairly / pretty それなりに / まあまあ

pretty は口語のみで用いられる。「とても」と「まあまあ」の両方の意味があるので、発声のニュアンスで使い分ける。

quite は、段階(評価)のない形容詞の場合には absolutely / completely のように「全く」のようになる。

  • quite perfect
  • quite wrong

quite (few|little) 「きわめて少ない」意味だが quite a (few|little|bit) は「結構多い」意味になる。 quite (few|little) は紛らわしいので、あまり使われていない。使われていても a が抜けてしまった間違いであるケースが多い。Google 翻訳では「かなりの数の」と翻訳される。

  • quite [a bit different] = 結構多い「わずかな違い」 = very different
  • [quite few] days = 「きわめて少ない」日数 = very few / few / not many