配分詞 Distributive は、物の配分量を表す。

  • all / half / both
  • each / every
  • either / neither

all / half / both

all / half / both の場合は、形容詞として用いれば of を省略できる。

  • All (of) the Japanese people here can’t speak English.
  • Half (of) this money is yours.
  • Both (of) these books are good.

ただし、目的格の代名詞 us / you / them / it には、形容詞は使えない。代名詞として of を伴うか、副詞として用いる。

  • I like both them.
  • I like both of them.
  • I like them both.
  • This book is the best of all them.
  • This book is the best of all of them.
  • This book is the best of them all.
  • All us surprised at the news.
  • We are all surprised at the news.
  • All of us are surprised at the news.

自明な場合は of … を省略することもできる。

  • Half of it is mine, and half (of it) is yours.
  • Do all American husbands help around the house? Not all of them. Some do, some don’t.

each / every

each / every は集合の個々の要素を指し、単数扱いになる。 each は個々の状態にフォーカスが当たり everyall「全て」の意味に近い。

  • Each side of a square is the same length.
  • He asked each participant to fill out a survey.
  • I’ve read every book.
  • Every sheet was taken.

2名以下の場合は every は使えない。

  • In Wimbledon men’s singles, every each player is allowed to take a bathroom break after a set.

each は単体で名詞として使える。 every は形容詞の意味しかもたないため every one とする。

  • There are 5 rooms. Each (one) (of the rooms) has a different color.
  • I checked out every one of their profiles.

both / either / neither

both / neither / either は二つの事柄について指す。 neither / either は単数扱いになる。自明の名詞は省略できる。

  • There are 2 restaurants. Which restaurant shall we go?
  • Both (restaurants) are very good.
  • Neither (restaurant) is expensive.
  • We can go to either (restaurant).

neither of の場合は、複数扱いでもよい。

  • Neither of these restaurants (is|are) expensive.

and / nor / or で二つの事柄を明示できる。

  • I asked both Alice and Bob which was better.
  • Neither Alice nor Bob came to the party.
  • You can ask either Alice or Bob.


  • She is both beautiful and intelligent.
  • I neither moved nor touched it.
  • Either you come here or I go there.

other / another

other は「他の」物を指す。単数の場合は another (an other) を用いる。

  • Do you have any other questions?
  • I want to learn another language.

other は代名詞としても使える。

  • another (an other): 未知集合の他の一つ
  • I dropped my fork. Could you bring me another?
  • others: 未知集合の他の二つ以上(未知なので、全ての残りはわからない)
  • I don’t know. Please ask others.
  • the other: 既知集合の他の一つ
  • I have two iPhone. One is white. The other is black.
  • the others: 既知集合の他の全て(既知なので、全ての残りを知っている)
  • There are 5 rooms. These 2 rooms are mine and the others are yours.

other than … で「… 以外の」の意味になる。代名詞ではなく前置詞的な使い方なので、名詞の後に続く。

  • Do you have any ideas other than that?
  • There is no one other than him.
  • I’m available anytime other than Friday.