受動態 Passivebe + 過去分詞 で「… される」という意味になる。

  • The house was built in 1890.
    • Somoone built the house in 1890.

以下のように by により、主語と述語を置き換えることができる。

  • This book was written by me.
    • I wrote this book.

二つの目的語(直接目的語 / 間接目的語)を取る動詞の場合、以下のように置き換える。

  • Someone gave us the information.
    • We were given the information.
    • The information was given to us.
  • Someone offered me a new job.
    • I was offered a new job.
    • A new job was offered to me.
  • Someone ask me the question.
    • I was asked the question.
    • The question was asked of me.

受動態にする場合、主に人(間接目的語)を主語にするが buy のように「人が買われた」と誤解される場合は、その限りではない。

  • Someone bought her the present.
    • She __was bought__ the present.
    • The present was bought for her.


  • I want to be left alone.
  • The baggage is going to be returned to you.
  • The application couldn’t be restarted.
  • The agreement must be contained in this document.
  • The message might have been sent to the wrong address.
  • Your account would be stolen if you didn’t change your password.
  • The procedure should have been followed.
  • The conference has been canceled.
  • The house is being restored.

said / supposed

It’s said that / is said to で「… と言われている」という噂を伝えることができる。

  • It is said that she is a teacher.
    • She is said to be a teacher.
  • It is known that Lisp is the best programming language.
    • Lisp is known to be the best programming language.
  • It is believed that he will win the game.
    • He is believed to win the game.
  • It is expected that more than 10,000 people will visit the site per day on average.
    • More than 10,000 people is expected to visit the site per day on average.

警察の捜査の際に allege / believe / report がよく使われる。過去について言及する時は to have + 過去分詞 の形になる。

  • It is alleged that he stole the money. 彼がその金を盗んだと疑われている
    • He is alleged to have stolen the money.
  • It is believed that he is wearing a hat. 彼は帽子をかぶっているらしい
    • He is believed to be wearing a hat.
  • It is reported that he was walking along the street. 彼はその道路を歩いていたと報告がある
    • He is reported to have been walking along the street.

said to の代わりに supposed to 「… という噂だ」も使える。

  • The new version is supposed to work fine. ちゃんと動くみたいだ
  • The book is supposed to not be very good. あまり良くないらしい
  • He is supposed to have stolen money. お金を盗んだらしい

supposed to には「… すること(予定)である」という意味もある。

  • Our technicians are supposed to be coming up to fix the trouble.
  • He was supposed to email me yesterday.

not supposed to の場合は「… することは想定されていない = してはならない」意味になる。

  • You’re not supposed to eat here. Could you wait until seats are available?
  • He has just left the hospital a few days ago. He’s not supposed to work so hard.


出来事や変化のある動詞で be の代わりに get が用いられることがある。

  • I got invited to the party. 誘われていた
  • I get involved in Haskell. 夢中になっている
  • I didn’t get offered the job. 仕事をもらえなかった

ただし、以下のフレーズにあるように、必ずしも get + 過去分詞 が受動態を表すわけではない。

  • get married 結婚する
  • get divorced 離婚する
  • get dressed 着る
  • get changed 着替える
  • get lost 道に迷う

have something done

have something done は「… を … してもらう(手配をする)」という意味になる。

  • I had my car repaired.
  • I’m having my car repaired.
  • Do you have your report reviewed?
  • I don’t like having my room cleaned.


  • I had my bag stolen.
  • I had my flight canceled.
  • I had my license taken away.